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辽宁专升本公英非谓语动词详解(2)
2015-1-2 11:01  9zsb  查看: 2   评论: 0

辽宁专升本公英非谓语一直是辽宁专升本考试的重点的内容。因此这个知识点也是作为我们复习的重点知识点。那么我们在复习非谓语的时候要从哪些地方入手了。下面升本圈的老师把非谓语的分词进行讲解。
 

  一、 分词
 

  1.分词形式:有现在分词和过去分词两种。过去分词只有一种形式,现在分词则有:
 

  一般主动式doing, 一般被动式being done, 完成主动式having done,完成被动式having been done
 

  2.语法功能:在句中作定语、表语、宾补、状语。
 

  3.现在分词和过去分词的区别:
 

  (1)语态不同:现在分词表示主动概念,及物动词的过去分词表示被动概念。例如:the moving film 动人的电影,the moved girl 受感动的姑娘,a running machine 一台转动的机器, a stolen car 一辆被盗的汽车
 

   注:关于心理状态动词的-ing形式表主动意,-ed形式表被动意,详见该讲后的专题。
 

   (2)时间关系上不同:现在分词表正在进行的动作,过去分词往往表已经完成的动作。
 

   例如:a developing country 发展中的国家,a developed country发达的国家
 

  4.现在分词的基本用法:
 

  (1) 一般主动式用法:
 

  A.作定语:The sleeping child is only five years old.(=The child who is sleeping is…)/The girl writing a letter there can speak English very well.(=The girl who is writing a letter can…)
 

  The factory making TV sets is very large.(=The factory which makes TV sets is very large.)
 

  B.作表语:The story sounds very interesting./The news is very exciting.
 

  C.作宾补:学用于see, watch, hear, feel, find, have, keep等动词之后。
 

  例如:We can see steam rising from the wet clothes. /I saw Tom coming out of the house. /Don’t keep the students doing homework all day.
 

  注:上述动词后跟不定式作宾补表示动作的过程,而不是正在进行中的动作,而现在分词作宾补则表示正在进行中的动作。例如:I heard them singing in the room
 

   when I passed it.(singing不可改为sing) Do you often hear them sing in the room ?(sing不可改为singing)
 

  have sb. do sth. 与have sb. doing sth. 的区别:前者have=let, 后者have 有时表“keep”意,有时表“employ(雇用)”意。如:
 

  I’ll have him go with me.我将让他和我一块去。
 

  I’ll have him working in my compary.我将雇用他在我的公司里工作。
 

  Don’t have the machine working all day .不要让机器整天工作。
 

  D.作状语:
 

  ①时间状语:Reading the letter, I couldn’t help thinking of my school life.
 

  ②原因状语:Being ill, I didn’t go to school yesterday.
 

  ③方式或伴随状语:Mary stood at the school gate waiting for Betty.
 

   (2)完成主动式用法:
 

   这种分词所表示的动作发生在句中谓语动词所表示的动作之前,一般在句中作时间或原因状语用,不能作定语用。例如:
 

   Having finished her homework,she went to bed. /Not having received his letter, she wrote to him again.
 

  (3)一般被动式用法:
 

   表示正在发生的被动动作,在句中作定语或状语。
 

   例如:The car being repaired is mine.(=The car which is being repaired is mine.) /Being repaired,the car can’t be used.(=As/Because it is being repaired,the car can’t be used.)
 

  (4)完成被动式用法:
 

   表示发生在谓语动作之前的被动动作,在句中多作状语,不能作定语。
 

   例如:Having been praised a second time ,I decided to make still greater progress.
 

  5.过去分词的基本用法:
 

  (1)作定语:The stolen car was found by the police last week.
 

  (2)作表语:The glass is broken. /When I got to the classroom,the door was locked.
 

  (3)作宾补:You must have your hair cut.
 

  (4)作状语:Given more time ,we can do the work much better.
 

  6.独立主格结构:
 

   当分词有它自己的独立主语(不同于句子主语的名词或代词)时,则是一种独立主格结构形式,在句中作状语、定语等。例如:
 

  The bell ringing, we all stopped talking.(=When the bell rang,we all stopped talking.) /There being no bus, we had to walk home .(=There was no bus ,so we had to walk home.)
 

  7.使用现在分词的几个注意点:
 

   (1)作状语用的现在分词,其逻辑主语必须同句中主语为同一人或同一事,例如:
 

   Standing on top of the tall building,we could see the whole city.(正)
 

   (Standing=When we stood)
 

   Standing on top of the tall building,the whole city could be seen.(误)
 

   Having found the cause, they continued the experiment.(正)(Having found
 

  =After/When they had found)
 

   Having found the cause, the experiment continued.(误)
 

  (2)短暂动词(即瞬间动词)的现在分词被动式不可作宾补或定语。例如:
 

   He saw the old man knocked down by the car.(knocked down不可改为being knocked down或having been knicked down)
 

   Do you like the dictionary bought by Zhang Ming?(bought不可改为being bought或having been bought)
 

  现在分词被动式与过去分词用法的区别:
 

   现在分词被动式与过去分词都有被动意,但其用法是有区别的:
 

  (1) 作宾语时,现在分词的一般被动式表示一个正在发生的被动动作,过去分词则表示一个已发生过的被动动作或没有时间性的状态。例如:
 

  Do you see the hospital there?
 

  你看见了那边那个 医院吗?
 

  The continent connected with Asia at the Suez Canal is Africa.在苏伊士运河处与亚洲相连的洲是非洲。(句中connected无时间性)
 

  (2) 作原因状语,现在分词被动式与过去分词可以互换。例如:
 

  Being led(=Led )by the Party,the Chinese people have won great victories.
 

  (3) 作方式或伴随状语,不用现在分词被动式,而用过去分词。例如:
 

  The soldiers lay on the ground,covered with nothing.
 

  (4) 作时间状语,若动作先于句子的谓语动作,且有具体过去时间,不可用现在分词一般被动式或完成被动式。例如:Built in 1192 ,the bridge was very useful.
 

  如果没有具体过去时间状语,可用过去分词或现在分词完成被动式。例如:
 

  Discussed(=Having been discussed)many times, the problem was settled at last.
 

  如果要强调分词状语的动作发生的时间在谓语动作之前,则宜用现在分词完成被动式,而不用过去分词。例如:
 

   Not having been invited,she had to stay at home.
 

  (5)在have,get之后宜用过去分词作宾补,不用现在分词被动式或不定式被动式作宾补。例如:I’ll have my hair cut.(cut不能改为being cut或be cut)He got his watch
repaired.(repaired不能改为being repaired或to be repaired)

 

  (6)在make, order, want, like, wish等动词后,多用过去分词作宾补,少用现在分词被动式作宾补。例如
 

  The speaker couldn’t make himself heard.(一般不说being heard)
 

  He wanted his house painted.(一般不说being painted)
 

  8.心理状态动词的-ing形式与-ed形式
 

   所谓心理状态动词是指含有使动意,使人产生某种情感、心理变化的动词。如:surprise使惊讶;interest使感兴趣。它们的-ing形式含主动意义,-ed形式含被动意义。皆可视为形容词。例如:surprising令人惊讶的,interesting令人感兴趣的;surprised(因…)感到惊讶的,interested(因…)感到兴趣的。下面的句子可显示两者的区别:
 

   The film is so interesting that they are all interested in it.
 

   She was much surprised at the surprising news.
 

   已学的心理状态动词有:astonish,bore(使厌烦),delight,disappoint,
 

  discourage,encourage,excite,frighten,interest,move(使感动),please(使高兴),puzzle(使迷惑),satisfy(使满意),surprise,shock,tire(使疲劳),trouble,upset(使不安),worry
 

   它们的-ing形式多和物连用,如:The news is pleasing/exciting./a boring report(一个令人厌烦的报告),a tiring walk(累人的步行)。
 

   它们的-ed形式多和人连用,如:an excited girl,/I’m tired.
 

   但是也有-ing形式和人连用,-ed形式和物连用的现象。如:an inspiring leader一位有感召力的领袖,an amusing girl一个讨人喜欢的女孩,a puzzled expression一种迷惑不解的表情,She said in a frightened voice.她用受了惊吓的声音说着话。
 

  分词是非谓语中最常见的考题也是频率最高的题。分词主要考的是过去分词和现在分词,大家在做分词的题型的时候需要注意题目的时间点和时间段,这是解题的关键地方,抓住了这个,分词题目自然迎刃而解,希望大家在复习的时候记住升本圈老师刚才教给大家的方法,然后都能在明年的辽宁专升本考试中取得一个相对满意的好成绩,顺利的实现自己梦寐以求的二本梦想!


 
 
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